Multiculturality / Multikulturalnost

And why it’s inevitable. I have an idea for this post for a while. But now the post on The honking goose blog has inspired me to write. There’s a lot of talk on the topic of multiculturality and lots of polemics about it. Some consider multiculturality as an ideal of the society, while others look at it as a dangerous threat. So, how too look at the whole thing? One thing is sure, not in a simple and one sided way. It is true that multicultural societies are potentially more conflictive, but again, homogenous communities are percentally more racist or nationalistic. Multiculturality is a cure, but it is also a problem, because it is a challenge. When we look at it statistically, surely less people are intolerant in multicultural communities, simply because they have a chance to actually meet ‘the other’. It is so in more or less normal communities, but also, in some cases it goes the other way around, the presence of the other serves as a trigger for violence towards that other, because you perceive it as an enemy. I come from a former Yugoslavia, todays Bosnia and Herzegovina, country that was torn by war, so I know what I’m talking about. Also, you can see situation with Israel and the Palestinians, China and Tibet, Turkey and the Kurds. We can say that in order to really have multiculturality, we need to have a real freedom of choice, the sides must agree to live together, any other way we have it, it is violence of one over the other. However we feel, today’s Europe is changing, the immigrants from Africa and Middle east are coming, together with the others, also people from eastern Europe move to the west, and so on. The trend will most probably continue in the future. There are few good arguments we can say that explain inevitableness of multiculturality.

First: Mankind was actually, always multicultural. Todays nations in most of the world are consisted of groups that were formerly divided in tribes that engaged in wars one against another, hated each other and so on. Even though some animosities between those ethnicities can still exist, they all agree on the fact that they belong to the same nation and the animosities almost never escalatete in violence. Those tensions lost their strength, while some new ones gained the strength, tensions between different nations. Ever since the mankind exists, the communities are getting more complex and bigger, and in the same manner, more culturally diverse. Today, we can look at us as a half finished project, maybe somewhat more than half way. We are united in bigger groups that function more or less fine, but there are still animosities between those bigger groups. But still, who can say that in a same way we now how nations that were warring tribes, tomorrow we won’t get along just fine as citizens of United Planet Earth? In other words, just as humans. It’s interesting how we actually all have to get to know each other in order for us to have the identity of a human, before that we’re members of different nations or tribes and so. It is a fact that cultures have always mixed with one another and if they weren’t we wouldn’t have anything we enjoy today, we would still live as isolated tribes, and all the progress would be almost impossible. Today there’s a theory that even our very species, the homo sapiens, was made by mixing of different pre human groups, and that’s the reason why we have such a big creativity and intellectual diversity and wideness, and also this big intelligence. It’s because the genetical and in a way we can say, cultural diversity that we became what we are now.

Ever since our early times, the cultures are in contact and the achievements of one group of people, through communication, spread, and so the knowledge and progress expanded. Today it’s clearer than ever, hence we live in an era of informations and we can see that, even if we totally close our nation’s borders, we can’t stop the flow of informations which influences and changes our culture. We, as global citizens can ask ourselves: How much American have we become by watching Hollywood movies? How much Japanese by watching Anime and reading Murakami? How much Turkish by reading Orhan Pamuk, and so on and so on. How many of today’s westerners believe in reincarnation just because of the stuff they read on the internet? I am one of them. Even if we stop physical people, we can’t stop informations, and so, the multiculturality will spread, because of a quite simple reason: because that’s what we want. We like that, and we have good reasons to, because with every new information we become enriched and better individual, and even evolutionarily speaking, we have more chances of survival with every new information we have. But we can ignore the darwinistic concepts of brutal selfishness in this story.
Another thing we can add is that, in today’s west, there’s a strong group of people on the political left that do not want to stop more immigrants from coming to their countries. This group of people will make it harder for anyone wanting to close the country borders, and so, the cultures will physically mix with one another. It’s important to understand that it’s a natural process, the cultures have always mixed and will continue so, it is crazy to think otherwise. And that’s why the far right wing people are backwards, because they are in fact, anti natural.

But on the other hand, the fact that cultures mix and will mix, doesn’t make it a hippy story. When right wing people say that multiculturalism is problematic and it causes conflicts, they are right, it is problematic, and it does cause conflicts. It’s simply that, we don’t have any other choice. The conflicts between groups are probably as old as our very species, just the form and intensity changes. Right wing people live in an illusion that they can freeze the world and turn their nation in a conservative utopia without ‘the others’, which pose a threat to them in most cases simply because they’re backwards. That world they dream about never existed and never will exist. It can exist for some time on a certain ground, but in long terms, it is impossible. Among the other arguments, we can add that today’s Europe is losing its population and is forced to take immigrants, and the US, Canada and Australia and lots of other countries are built off immigrants and still depend on immigrant labour. So, cultures will mix, don’t live in an illusion that they won’t, and also, conflicts will happen, don’t live in an illusion that they won’t. What we need is to learn to manage those conflicts in a peaceful and a constructive way. One part of people on the left is quite naive in their belief in multiculturalism, while I could ask them, how would they behave if the Arabs that now move to Europe would demand schools in their own language, and if their nation would have to get bi or multilingual? And if the changes to the state law would be made in order to allow polygamy for example? Most of the people would be against that. So, even though the cultures mix and the left looks at it as a positive thing, they still consider it positive under their own terms.

But still, that doesn’t change the fact that the left is right in its positive view of multiculturalism, it just shows that they are also, quite often naive. But they are still right, because the mixing of cultures cannot and shouldn’t be stopped. The communities are getting bigger and more complex ever since, and it is a logical conclusion that it will continue to happen, unless some apocalyptic scenario turns our planet in a mad max movie. In any other scenario, we will probably some day live in an United Humanity, sooner or later. It is a question will it and when will it be publicly acknowledged as that, and when will that community gain a political form. Today we have United Nations, but those are still ‘nations’. But to contrary that, we can see how the capital shows an incredible ability to be international. The world is interdependent, we depend on each other today more than ever before. So, we should accept what is happening and deal with the challenges it brings, in order for our world to become a more egalitarian and justful place, and not vice versa, which is a goal of a certain clique of people. If we deny changes, we can’t change anything for the better but are in fact blind people who are already living in the past.

I zašto je neminovna. Iman ideju oko ovog posta već neko vrime… Iako je pišen na blog servisu jedne države kojoj je ova tema poprilično out, doduše možda ne toliko u Sarajevu, il da buden precizniji na Ilidži :D, al većinom je out. Al svejedno. Dosta se priča o multikulturalnosti, i dosta polemika postoji. Dosta je ljudi koji su protiv multikulturalnosti i smatraju je opasnom, s druge strane, dosta je ljudi kojima je multikulturalnost ideal društva. Međutim, kako tu stvar posmatrat? Pa, samo ću reć jedno: sasvim sigurno ne jednostrano ni jednostavno. Istina je da je multikulturalnost konfliktna, to je točno. Al opet, s druge strane, zajednice koje nisu multikulturalne su u procentu više nacionalističke ili rasističke. Multikulturalnost je lijek, ali ujedno predstavlja i problem, jer je izazov. Procentualno, zasigurno je manje ljudi netolerantno u multikulturalnim sredinama, prosto jer imaju šansu bliže upoznat tog ‘drugog’. Tako je to u nekim, koliko toliko normalnim državama, ali s druge strane, postoje situacije koje su obrnute, di baš zbog prisutnosti tog drugog se izražava mržnja prema njemu, jer ga se doživljava ko neprijatelja. O ovome na našim prostorima ne moramo detaljno pričat, a moremo pogledat i primjere Izraela i Palestine, Kurda u Turskoj i slično. Zaključak je ukratko, da multikulturalnost mora podrazumjevat ideale slobode, inače, to je nasilje jednih na drugima. Međutim, današnja Europa se mijenja, dolaze izbjeglice, doseljavaju se Arapi, Afrikanci, ljudi iz istočne Europe na zapad i slično. Taj trend će se u budućnosti vjerovatno nastavit. Postoji nekoliko razloga koji se mogu pouzdano navest kao argument koji multikulturalnosti ide u prilog.

Prvo: čovječanstvo je zapravo, oduvik multikulturalno. Današnje nacije su produkat plemena koja su međusobno ratovala, mrzila se, ubijala se i radila sve ono loše što danas neke nacije rade jedne drugima. Međutim, sve te regionalne podjele u današnjim nacijama su privaziđene, jednom stanovniku Krajine il Zenice more postojat neki animozitet prema recimo, Sarajlijama, ali neće iz tog razloga ni jedan ni drugi se smatrat manje Bošnjacima. Kao ni Dalmatinac i Slavonac zbog međusobnih stereotipa nisu ni jedni ni drugi manje Hrvati, niti stanovnici Južne Srbije i Beograda manje Srbi. Te tenzije postoje, međutim, izgubile su snagu, ali su zato neke nove dobile na snazi, a koih prije nije bilo. Od kad čovječanstvo postoji, zajednice se usložnjavaju i postaju sve veće i veće, i samim time kulturološki šarolikije. Međutim, mi smo danas na pola puta, ili pak malo priko pola puta. Koliko toliko smo ujedinjeni u veće grupe koje funkcioniraju ok, ali i dalje postoji animozitet između tih većih grupa. Ali ipak, ko more reć da se isto kao što se plemena od prije stotina godina danas savršeno slažu, isto tako današnje nacije neće u budućnosti savršeno slagat kao stanovnici Ujedinjene Planete Zemlje. Drugim rječima, prosto kao ljudi? Zanimljivo je zapravo, kako se tribamo potpuno ujedinit i upoznat da bi prihvatili taj identitet: ljudi, do tada smo članovi ovog il onog plemena, ove ili one nacije itd. Činjenica jeste, kulture su se mišale uvik, i da se nisu mišale, ne bi bilo ničega od napretka koji danas imamo. Danas se smatra, barem postoji teorija, da i je i sama ljudska vrsta, mi, homo sapiensi, produkat miješanja raznih predljudi, i da je upravo ta šarolikost gena i uvjetno rečeno ‘kultura’ (možda protokultura recimo), a moremo reć i vrsta ili podvrsta, uglavnom, smatra se da je ta šarolikost odgovorna za ljudsku kreativnost i velik raspon mogućnosti koje imamo.

Od ranih dana kulture su u kontaktu i postignuća jedne grupe ljudi, kroz komunikaciju sa drugima, se šire i znanje se tako širi. Danas je to jasnije nego ikad, jer živimo u eri informacija, i moremo vidit da zapravo, i ako se potpuno zatvorimo u svoje nacije, ne meremo zaustavit protok informacija koji sam već utiče na našu kultura. Moremo se zapitat, kao građani praktično cilog svita, koliko zapravo gledanjem Holivudskih filmova postajemo Amerikanci? Također, koliko čitanjem Orhana Pamuka postajemo Turci, Murakamija Japanci, gledanjem Anime-a Japanci i Koreanci, itd. Koliko današnjih zapadjaka prosto zbog čitanja stvari na internetu, recimo, viruje u reinkarnaciju? Ja prvi spadan u tu grupu. Čak i da se potpuno zatvorimo, ne meremo zaustavit informacije, i zapravo, miješanje kultura je neminovno, prvenstveno jer: Mi to želimo. Sviđa nam se to. I ima itekako puno razloga da nam se to sviđa, jer nas to razvija, obogaćuje, daje nam veći raspon izbora, postajemo šarolikija i bolja osoba svakom novom informacijom koju imamo. Također bi se zapravo moglo reć da time imamo šanse da budemo evolucijski uspješniji, jer razvijamo inteligenciju i snalažljivost. Al jebo evoluciju, barem Darvinovu brutalno sebičnu verziju te teorije. Druga je stvar to što, u današnjim zemljama na zapadu, barem u većini slučajeva, postoji dosta jaka grupa ljevice koja se ne želi kulturološki zatvarat i želi primat nove imigrante. Ta grupa ljudi stvara unutarnju tenziju koja bilo kakvo zatvaranje čini manje izglednim, i samim time, kulture se fizički lakše mišaju. Ali ono što je bitno svatit je da je to prirodan proces, kulture su se mišale i mišaju se oduvik, i suludo je zapravo mislit da se to neće dešavat u budućnosti. Zato su desničari i konzervativci nazadni, jer su zapravo, protivprirodni.

No, to što se kulture mišaju i što će se mišat ne znači da je to sve jedna fina hipi priča. Kad desničari kažu da je to problematično i da uzrokuje konflikte, u pravu su, to jest problematično i to uzrokuje konflikte. Radi se prosto o tome, da mi nemamo izbora, i da, konflikti zbog drugog i drugačijih su stari koliko smo stari mi kao vrsta, samo se minja oblik intenzitet. Desničari žive u iluziji da se svit more zamrznit, i da se nacija more pritvorit u neku konzervativnu utopiju mira i sigurnosti od ‘drugih’, koje oni doživljavaju kao prijetnju, većinom ni zbog čega drugog nego zbog svoje zadrtosti. Međutim, takav svit nikad nije postoja i nikad ne mere postojat. On more neko vrime postojat na nekom terenu, ali dugoročno je nemoguć. Između ostlog, današnja Europa gubi stanovništvo zbog pada nataliteta i mora primat imigrante. A Amerika je kompletna izgrađena na imigrantskom radu i stanovništvu, i od njega i danas ovisi. Tako da, kulture će se mišat, nemojte živit u iluziji da neće, i također, konflikti će se dešavat, također, nemojte živit u iluziji da neće. Tim konfliktima triba zapravo, naučit upravljat i nać miran način da se oni rješe. Također, jedan dio ljevice je naivan, jer misle da ssu multikulturalisti, dok međutim, ja mogu postavit pitanje, kako bi se ponašali kad bi npr, Arapi koji se sad doseljavaju, u njiovoj zemlji zatražili pravo na škole na svom jeziku, i kad bi njiova nacija sad tribala postat dvojezična? Ili recimo kad bi zatražili promjene državnog zakona da npr, im se dozvoli poligamija, i slično? Većina bi bila protiv. Tako da, koliko god da se kutlure mišaju i da ljevica to smatra pozitivnim, i većini ljevice također je to pozitivno pod određenim, njihovim uvjetima.

Međutim, to ne mijenja činjenicu da su ljevičari po tom pitanju u pravu, samo prosto, je pokazatelj da su i oni često naivni. Ali u pravu jesu, jer se miješanje kultura ne mere, a ni ne triba zaustavit. Zajednice se uvećavaju i usložnjavaju od kad postoje, i kulture se mišaju, sasvim je logično da će se taj proces nastavit. Jedino što tome more stat u kraj je možda neki golemi rat koji bi napravija apokalipsu i bacija nas unazad tisuće godina, u svit mad maxa recimo, tako nešto. Inače, u bilo kojem drugom scenariju, mi ćemo najvjerovatnije, prije ili poslje, živjeet u Ujedinjenom Čovječanstvu. Pitanje je oće li se to javno tako nazivat, i kad će se nazivat, i kada će ta zajednica dobit politički oblik. Ujedinjeni narodi danas postoje, mada, oni su i dalje ‘narodi’ ne čovječanstvo, ali zato kapital pokazuje nevjerovatnu mogućnost da bude internacionalan. Svit je međuzavisan, danas ovisimo jedni o drugima više nego ikad prije. Tako da, tribamo prihvatit to šta se dešava, i nosit se sa izazovima, i gledat da svit koji se prid nama stvara bude bolje misto na način da promjene koje će se neminovno desit, dovedu i do veće slobode i pravde, a ne još veće nepravde. A ako se opiremo promjenama, onda ne meremo ništa ni prominit na bolje, nego smo zapravo, slipci koji već danas žive u prošlosti.


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